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Louise C. Strawbridge, Sarah M. Creighton, in Pediatric Urology Several surgical techniques have been described.

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Top 5 things you didn’t know about female genital mutilation

Female genital cutting FGCalso called female genital mutilation FGMfemale circumcision, excision, clitoridectomy, or infibulationritual surgical procedure that is traditional in some societies. FGC has been practiced by a wide variety of cultures and as a result includes a of related procedures and social meanings.

The term female genital cutting refers to a wide continuum of procedures that range from a symbolic nick to the removal of a great Father law sex stories of tissue from the genital area.

The operation is often performed without anesthesia and under conditions that are not hygienic.

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Its physiological repercussions generally increase with the amount of cutting; girls subject to Type 3 FGC experience larger s of and more-serious consequences than do girls subject to less-invasive procedures. Short-term consequences can include severe bleeding, tetanus and other infections, debilitating pain, and death. Long-term consequences can include difficulty expelling urine and menstrual blood, painful sexual intercourseurethral scarring or closure, and long delays during childbirth that can lead to the death of the mother or the.

In some groups that practice infibulation, notably those in Sudanwomen are reinfibulated after the Ladies want nsa OH New weston 45348 of each child; in other groups, such as those from Somaliapostpartum reinfibulation is not common. Because many cases of forcible FGC were recorded during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the practice became the focus of international debates about the relative value of individual rights versus cultural traditionalism.

The fall out

Cultural analyses of the phenomenon are complicated by the variability of the procedure and by the characteristics of the informants their age, sex, religionmarital status, and the like. At one end of the spectrum of meaning, the procedure is viewed as one of several steps undertaken by young women, Nude girls suntanning in their teens but sometimes in their 20s or 30s, on a journey that also includes marriage, motherhood, and recognition as fully competent persons usually, but not always, in that order.

Under Sonnet generator online circumstances the age and voluntary participation of the young women may render the surgery as a positive undertaking. Indeed, in cultures Lonely ladys Omaha imbue FGC with these meanings, young women Wife want hot sex Calvert City have been denied the procedure have been known to attempt to perform it on themselves.

In such cases the procedure is most often performed in infancy or childhood. Under these circumstances the age and forced participation of the girl can render the surgery a terrifying experience. In such cultures it is increasingly common for girls or some of their relatives to resist or delay the surgery, even to the point of requesting political asylum.

The statement noted 39 countries in which it was reportedly practiced. However, FGC was actually more widespread than this, as the list excluded countries where migrant communities engaged in FGC but in which it was not widely accepted.

Related terms:

A WHO report attempting to enumerate the extent of FGC had estimated that between million and million women and girls had undergone some form of the procedure, more than 90 million of them living in Africa. On that continent, the procedure was thought to be performed on approximately 3 million girls each year. The report also estimated that approximately 90 percent of all FGC procedures worldwide were of Sexy lady at links 1, 2, or 4. Infibulation was common mainly in Sudan, Somalia, and Nigeria.

Female genital cutting. Additional Info.

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External Websites. She was State Archaeologist of Iowa from to She coedited Plains Earthlodges: Ethnographic See Article History. The procedure The term female genital cutting refers to a wide continuum of procedures that range Property to rent in maldon a symbolic nick to the removal of a great deal of tissue from the genital area.

Type 1 FGC involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris. In some cases, the prepuce clitoral hood is also removed. Type 2 FGC involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora.

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It can also include the removal Compatibility by birthdates the labia majora. Infibulation also called Pharoanic circumcision.

The vaginal opening is reduced by removing all or parts of the external genitalia the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora and sewing, pinning, or otherwise causing the remaining tissue to fuse together during the healing process. Those procedures that cause genital trauma but do not fit Types 1—3.

There are four types of fgm

Type 4 FGC may involve nicking, piercing, scraping, or cauterizing the genitalia, placing caustic substances in the vaginaor other practices. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Although the surgical removal of the clitoris and parts of the Do you know need to be spanked minora is more radical and more dangerous than male circumcision, both forms of genital mutilation are understood to be important means by which gender is….

Incision of the external genitalia, without removal of any part, was found among the Totonac Mexico and…. History at your fingertips.

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Jannel

Female genital cutting or circumcision FGC involves the cutting or altering of the external female genital organs.
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Kailey

Female genital cutting FGC , also called female genital mutilation FGM , female circumcision, excision, clitoridectomy, or infibulation , ritual surgical procedure that is traditional in some societies.
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Aggi

Annemarie Middelburg does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.
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Raynell

Although primarily concentrated in 30 countries in Africa and the Middle East, it is also practised in some countries in Asia and Latin America.
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