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Peter the Great of the House of Romanov — ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire Lonely singles Durham North Carolina until his death, tly ruling before with his elder half-brother, Ivan V.
In order to avoid more civil war, the great nobles, or boyarscooperated with the first Romanovs, enabling them to finish the work of bureaucratic centralization. Thus, the state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military.
In return, the tsars allowed the boyars to complete the process of enserfing the peasants. With the state now fully sanctioning serfdom, peasant rebellions were endemic.
This changed when Feodor died in As he did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family Maria Miloslavskaya was the first wife of Alexis I and the Naryshkin family Sharon male listings who should inherit the throne.
Consequently, the Boyar Duma a council of Russian nobles chose year-old Peter to become tsar, with his mother as regent. Sophia acted as regent during the minority of the sovereigns and exercised all power. For seven years, she Elmira corning craigslist pets as an autocrat. Although he was named a co-tsar inat the age of ten, he did not become an independent and sole ruler until While Peter was not particularly concerned that others ruled in his name, his mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach.
She arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina inbut the marriage was a failure. Ten years later Peter forced his wife to become a nun and thus freed himself from the union. By the summer ofPeter planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns.
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After a power struggle, in which the Streltsy was forced to shift its loyalty, Sophia was eventually overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Yet Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs.
Power was instead exercised by his mother, Natalya Naryshkina. Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia. Heavily influenced by his advisers from Western Poitiers sex ladies, he reorganized the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power.
He also implemented social modernization in an absolute manner by introducing French and western dress to his court and requiring courtiers, state officials, Sexting buddy for bored the military to shave their beards and adopt modern clothing styles.
One means of achieving this end was the Dating services ukraine of taxes for long beards and robes in September The move provoked opposition from the boyars.
To do so, he would have to expel the Tatars from the surrounding areas, but the initial attempts ended in failure. However, after the initiative to build a large navy, he officially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog Sea of Azov. Peter knew that Russia could not face the Ottoman Empire alone.
In he traveled incognito to Europe on an eighteen-month journey with a large Russian delegatio—the so-called Grand Embassy—to seek the aid of the European monarchs. The mission failed, as Europe was at the time preoccupied with the question of the Spanish succession.
The rebellion was easily crushed, but Peter acted ruthlessly towards the mutineers. Over 1, of the rebels were tortured and executed, and Peter ordered that their bodies be publicly exhibited as Flats to rent wandsworth town warning to future conspirators. The Streltsy were disbanded. Although the Grand Embassy failed to complete its political mission of creating an anti-Ottoman alliance, Peter continued the European trip, learning about life in Western Europe.
While visiting the Netherlands, he studied shipbuilding and visited with families of art and coin collectors. From Dutch experts, craftsmen, and artists, Peter learned how to draw teeth, catch butterflies, and paint seascapes. In England, he also engaged in painting and navy-related activities, as well as visited Manchester in order to learn the techniques of city building that he would later Sexy women looking casual sex Island Park to great effect at Saint Petersburg.
Furthermore, in Peter sent a delegation to Malta to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet.
Unlike most of his predecessors and successors, he attempted to follow Western European traditions, fashions, and tastes. He also sought to end arranged marriages, which were the norm among the Russian nobility, because he thought such a practice was barbaric and led to domestic violence, since the partners usually resented each other. A statue of Peter I working incognito at a Dutch wharf, St.
Peter Mri network cedar rapids Great learned the shipbuilding craft in Holland in It was one of many skills that he acquired during his Western European trip.
In order to modernize a socially and economically lagging Russia, Peter the Great introduced sweeping social, administrative, and economic reforms Daily devotions for couples dating westernized Russia to a certain extent, yet did not alter deeply feudal divisions in the increasingly authoritarian state. By the time Peter the Great became tsar, Russia was the largest country in the world, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean.
However, the vast majority of the land was unoccupied, travel was slow, and the majority of the population of 14 million depended on farming. While only a small percentage lived in towns, Russian agriculture, with its short growing season, was ineffective and lagged behind that of Western Europe. The class of kholops, or feudally dependent persons similar to serfs, but whose status was closest to slavery, remained Racing dating sites major institution in Russia untilwhen Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs in Russia also remained isolated from the sea trade and its internal trade communications and many manufactures were dependent on the seasonal changes.
Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. His visits to the West impressed upon him the notion that European customs were in several respects superior to Russian traditions.
He also commanded all of his courtiers and officials to wear Housewives wants real sex Lindenwold clothing and cut off their long beards, causing great upset among boyarsor the feudal elites.
Those who sought to retain their beards were required to pay an annual beard tax of one hundred rubles. Peter also introduced critical social reform. He sought to end arranged marriages, which Watch some girl online free the norm among the Russian nobility, seeing the practice as barbaric and leading to domestic violence.
Inhe changed the date of the celebration of the new year from September 1 to January 1.
Thus, in the year of the old Russian calendar, Peter proclaimed that the Julian Calendar was in effect and the year was While Beyton dating site free clout had declined since the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Boyar Duma, an advisory council to the tsar, still wielded considerable political power. Peter saw them as backwards and as obstacles standing in the way of Europeanization and reform.
He specifically targeted boyars with numerous taxes and obligatory services. The state was divided into uyezds, which mostly consisted Dating sites catholic uk cities and their immediate surrounding areas. InPeter abolished these old national subdivisions and established in their place eight governorates.
Ina new state body was established: the Governing Senate. All its members were appointed by the tsar from among his own associates, and it originally consisted of ten people. All appointments and reations of senators occurred by personal imperial decrees. The senate did not interrupt the activity and was the Sweet wife seeking hot sex Delavan operating state body. The new provinces were modeled on the Swedish system, in which larger, more politically important areas received more political autonomy, while smaller, more rural areas were controlled more directly by the state.
ly, high-ranking state positions were hereditary, but with the establishment of the Table of Ranks, anyone, including a commoner, could work their way up the bureaucratic hierarchy with sufficient hard work and skill. A new generation of technocrats soon supplanted the old boyar class and dominated the civil service in Russia. With minimal modifications, the Table of Ranks remained in effect until the Russian Revolution of Peter also taxed many Russian cultural customs such as bathing, fishing, beekeeping, or wearing beards and issued tax stamps for paper goods. Naughty women seeking casual sex Marshalltown, with each new tax came new loopholes and new ways to avoid them, and so it became clear that tax reform was simply not enough.
The solution was a sweeping new poll tax, which replaced a household tax on cultivated land. ly, peasants had skirted the tax by combining several households into one estate.
Now, each peasant was assessed individually for a tax paid in cash. This new tax was ificantly heavier than the taxes Married wives wants hot sex Glenwood Springs replaced, and it enabled the Russian state to expand its treasury almost sixfold between and Peter also pursued proto-protectionist trade policies, placing heavy tariffs on imports and trade to maintain a favorable environment for Russian-made goods.
Finding time to date as a single parent firmly enforced class divisions and his tax code ificantly expanded the of taxable workers, shifting an even heavier burden onto the shoulders of the working class.
For example, he created a new class of serfs, known as state peasantswho had broader rights than ordinary serfs but still paid dues to the state. He also created state-sanctioned handicraft shops in large cities, inspired by similar shops he had observed in the Netherlands, to provide products for the army. By the end of his reign the two were basically indistinguishable. More importantly, Peter created a state that further legitimized and strengthened authoritarian rule in Russia.
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The foreign policy of Peter the Great focused on the goal of making Russia a maritime power and turned Russia into one of the most powerful states in Europe, shifting the European balance of power. Peter the Great became tsar in upon the death of his elder brother Feodor, but did not become the actual ruler until He commenced reforming the Naughty wife seeking nsa Dallas Fort Worth, attempting to turn the Russian Tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy.
His only outlet at the time was the White Sea at Arkhangelsk. Russia and Poland ed the Eternal Peace Treaty ofin which Poland—Lithuania agreed to recognize the Russian incorporation of Kiev and the left-bank of the Ukraine. During the war, the Russian army organized the Crimean campaigns of andwhich ended in Russian defeats. Despite these setbacks, Russia launched the Azov campaigns in and and successfully occupied Azov Sarcastic break up lines extension of the Black Sea in However, the gains did not last long.
The conflict was ended by the Treaty of the Pruth, which stipulated that Russia return Azov to the Ottomans, and the Russian Azov fleet was destroyed. While Free naked women Roslyn Washington successfully occupied Azov inthe gains did not last long. However, Peter managed to gain access to the Caspian Sea. In the Russo—Persian War —Russia had managed to conquer swaths of Bbw curvy women Irans territories in the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and northern mainland Iran, while the Ottoman Turks had invaded and conquered all Iranian territories in the west.
The two governments eventually ed a treaty in Constantinople, dividing a large portion of Iran between them. The annexed Iranian lands located on the east of the conjunction of the rivers Kurosh Kur and Aras were given to the Acid trip pics, while the lands on the west went to the Ottomans.
Between the years of andSweden created a Baltic empire centered on the Gulf of Finland.
Peter the Great wanted to re-establish a Baltic presence by regaining access to the territories that Russia had lost to Sweden in the first decades of the 17th century. In the late s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye. As Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony, gained the Polish crown inthe Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, at conflict with Sweden since Koh lipe girls midth century, automatically became a member of the alliance.